Another example of a spud unconventional gas well omitted from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection’s Act 13 report, this one in the West Falls Formation.
In 1975, Peoples Natural Gas Company spud the James Fleck #1 in Sandy Creek Township, Mercer County, reaching a total depth of 9,246 feet in “Precambrian granite” (Lytle et al., 1977: 23). The well was plugged back and fractured in the Lower Silurian Medina Group from 4,990 to 5,040 feet, discovering the Fleck Pool in the Sheakleyville Field (Lytle et al., 1977). In 1977, the Pennsylvania Geological Survey reported two different completion dates for this well: August 27, 1975, and March 12, 1976, creating indeterminacy as to when these events took place (Lytle et al., 1977). Regardless, initial production was reportedly 231 Mcfgpd, and the well was assigned Permit #MER-20116 (Lytle et al., 1977), or API #37-085-20116 under current nomenclature (Baranoski, 2002). The well was then shut-in (Heyman & Cozart, 1978). According to later reports, “although a significant amount of gas was encountered, it was not deemed sufficient to justify the expense of putting the well on line” (Harper & Abel, 1979: 41).
Around this same time, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) had launched a five-year study of Devonian organic-rich shales in the Appalachian Basin (Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977). As it relates to the James Fleck #1, in addition to production from the Medina Group, well logs indicated gas production in so-called Zone I facies, which were then thought to be “approximately equivalent to the Rhine Street Shale of New York” (Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977: 41). Seizing upon this potential, Peoples Natural Gas Company and the ERDA began negotiating the possibility of using the James Fleck #1 to test the West Falls Formation (Frohne, 1978; Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977).
These negotiations succeeded, and in March 1978, the newly formed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) “attempted to stimulate the Rhinestreet facies … by means of a massive hydraulic fracturing treatment” (Harper & Abel, 1979: 41). In preparation for the treatment, the Devonian Shale was perforated with 50 holes between 3,112 and 3,360 feet deep (Frohne, 1978). The planned hydraulic fracturing treatment called for 270,000 gallons of nitrogen-water foam fracturing fluid, 324,000 pounds of sand proppant, and 12 major pieces of fracturing equipment (Frohne, 1978). Additionally, 6 gallons of surfactant, 1 gallon of clay stabilizer, and 44 pounds of calcium chloride per thousand gallons of water were injected with the foam (Frohne, 1978). The job also included 2,000 pounds of flaked benzoic acid to be used as a temporary diverting agent to insure that the entire perforated interval accepted some fracturing fluid (Frohne, 1978). See Table 1 for complete specifications of the planned massive hydraulic fracture treatment.
Table 1. Fleck #1 Massive Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Schedule
Source: Frohne, 1978
However, during the hydraulic fracturing treatment, unexpectedly high pressures were encountered, as well as a mechanical packer problem, resulting in a catastrophic downhole casing failure (Frohne, 1978). During the curtailed foam frac operation, 1,582,000 SCF of nitrogen gas, 18,500 gallons of water, and 19,700 pounds of sand had been pumped into the well, most of which then rapidly escaped from the fractured interval and returned to the surface. During the flowback, a substantial amount of sand proppant was sprayed over the backside of the well location. Trees about 30 to 50 yards away had coats of sand plastered on trunks and branches, and there was a solid layer of sand over the rear quadrant of the well site (see Figure 1). “This served to illustrate the potential hazards associated with any stimulation effort, as well as the need for good wellhead arrangement and spectator control” (Frohne, 1978: 5).
Figure 1. Fleck #1 Massive Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Schematic
Source: Frohne, 1978
Despite extensive remedial efforts, the treatment had to be aborted, and the well was plugged and abandoned (Frohne, 1978; Piotrowski, Cozart, Heyman, Harper, & Abel, 1979; Piotrowski & Harper, 1979). Following these events, the Pennsylvania Geological Survey published another completion record for this well, dated March 16, 1978 (Piotrowski et al., 1979).
 The ERDA was created on Oct 17, 1974 as part of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. On October 1, 1977, the ERDA was combined with the Federal Energy Administration to form the United States Department of Energy.
Baranoski, M. T. 2002. Structure Contour Map on the Precambrian Unconformity Surface in Ohio and Related Basement Features. Columbus, OH: Ohio Department of Natural Resources.
Frohne, K.-H. 1978. Technical Assessment: Massive Foam Stimulation Attempt in Mercer Co., Pa. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.
Harper, J. A., & Abel, K. D. 1979. Devonian Shale Research in Pennsylvania: An Update. In R. G. Piotrowski, C. L. Cozart, L. Heyman, J. A. Harper, & K. D. Abel (Eds.), Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1978: 34–43. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 192.
Heyman, L., & Cozart, C. L. 1978. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1977. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 191.
Lytle, W. S., Heyman, L., Piotrowski, R. G., & Krajewski, S. A. 1977. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1976. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 190.
Piotrowski, R. G., Cozart, C. L., Heyman, L., Harper, J. A., & Abel, K. D. 1979. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1978. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 192.
Piotrowski, R. G., & Harper, J. A. 1979. Black Shale and Sandstone Facies of the Devonian “Catskill” Clastic Wedge in the Subsurface of Western Pennsylvania. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.
Piotrowski, R. G., & Krajewski, S. A. 1977. Devonian Shale Research in Pennsylvania. In W. S. Lytle, L. Heyman, R. G. Piotrowski, & S. A. Krajewski (Eds.), Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1976: 33–42. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 190.