The Metropolitan Industry #1

Another example of a spud unconventional gas well omitted from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection’s Act 13 report, this one in the West Falls Formation.

Metropolitan Industry #1

In 1975, Quaker State Oil Refining Corporation completed the Metropolitan Industry #1 in Darlington Township, Beaver County, as a test of the Lower Silurian Medina Group (Harper & Abel, 1979; Lytle, Piotrowski, & Heyman, 1976; Piotrowski & Harper, 1979). The well was drilled to a total depth of 6,666 feet in the Queenston Shale (Lytle, Heyman, Piotrowski, & Krajewski, 1977; Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976). After no gas was encountered in the Medina, the well was plugged back to test the Upper Devonian shale (Harper & Abel, 1979; Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976). There was no natural production from the shale, but after hydraulic fracturing from just above the Onondaga limestone to above the Tully limestone the well initially produced 150 Mcfgepd (Harper & Abel, 1979; Lytle et al., 1977; Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976; Piotrowski & Harper, 1979).

At the time, the Pennsylvania Geological Survey claimed the well “could be a most significant discovery” (Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976: 25), and credited it with discovering the Darlington Field. This enthusiasm proved to be short lived, however, as production declined each day, and by the end of 30 days the well was non-productive (Lytle et al., 1977). “When shut-in, pressure would build up, but on opening up the well, it would blow off to nothing in a short time. Evidently, there was very little original fracture porosity. Gas accumulated mainly in fractures induced when the well was completed by hydraulic fracturing” (Lytle et al., 1977: 23). The well was eventually plugged and abandoned (Piotrowski & Harper, 1979).

Despite being completed on February 6, 1975, “the [well] record was not received until 1976” (Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976: 25–26). In 1977, some two years after it had been completed, the state published the well record (Lytle et al., 1977). The well was originally assigned Permit #BEA-20054 (Lytle et al., 1977). Under current nomenclature, the Metropolitan Industry #1 is known as API #37-007-20054 (Hosterman & Whitlow, 1983; Ryder et al., 2012).

Initially, the Metropolitan Industry #1 was described as having been completed in the Upper Devonian shale (Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976). The following year the Pennsylvania Geological Survey reported the well produced from so-called Zone I facies, “the second major black shale unit in Pennsylvania” (see Figure 1), which was thought to be “approximately equivalent to the Rhine Street Shale of New York” (Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977: 41). By 1978, the Metropolitan Industry #1 was considered to produce from the “Rhinestreet shale facies” (Harper & Abel, 1979: 38). Finally, by 1979, it was shown that the well completed and produced from the West Falls, Sonyea, and Genesse Formations (see Figure 2) (Piotrowski & Harper, 1979).

Figure 1. Upper Devonian Cross Section Circa 1977

upperdevonian1977

Source: Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977

Figure 2. Metropolitan Industry #1 Combined Well Logs

metro1logs

Source: Piotrowski & Harper, 1979

References

Harper, J. A., & Abel, K. D. 1979. Devonian Shale Research in Pennsylvania: An Update. In R. G. Piotrowski, C. L. Cozart, L. Heyman, J. A. Harper, & K. D. Abel (Eds.), Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1978: 34–43. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 192.

Hosterman, J. W., & Whitlow, S. I. 1983. Clay Mineralogy of Devonian Shales in the Appalachian Basin. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey.

Lytle, W. S., Heyman, L., Piotrowski, R. G., & Krajewski, S. A. 1977. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1976. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 190.

Lytle, W. S., Piotrowski, R. G., & Heyman, L. 1976. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1975. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 189.

Piotrowski, R. G., & Harper, J. A. 1979. Black Shale and Sandstone Facies of the Devonian “Catskill” Clastic Wedge in the Subsurface of Western Pennsylvania. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

Piotrowski, R. G., & Krajewski, S. A. 1977. Devonian Shale Research in Pennsylvania. In W. S. Lytle, L. Heyman, R. G. Piotrowski, & S. A. Krajewski (Eds.), Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1976: 33–42. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 190.

Ryder, R. T., Trippi, M. H., Swezey, C. S., Crangle, R. D., Jr., Hope, R. S., Rowan, E. L., et al. 2012. Geologic Cross Section C–C’ through the Appalachian Basin From Erie County, North-Central Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Bedford County, South-Central Pennsylvania. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Map 3172.