The Ashcroft #1

Another example of a spud unconventional gas well omitted from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection’s Act 13 report, this one in the West Falls Formation.

Ashcroft #1

In December 1975, St. Joe Petroleum Corporation spud the Richard J. Ashcroft #1 well in Greene Township, Beaver County, ultimately drilling to a total depth of 7,519 feet in the Queenston Shale (Heyman & Cozart, 1978). The Ashcroft #1 was originally drilled as a test of the Lower Silurian Medina Group (Piotrowski & Harper, 1979), and reportedly completed on December 6, 1975. Although there was a slight show of gas, the well was initially shut-in, pending further production tests (Heyman & Cozart, 1978). The well was later plugged back, and, on February 19, 1976, was reportedly completed in the Devonian Rhinestreet shale (Piotrowski & Harper, 1979). However, after being hydraulically fractured, there was no sustained flow, and as of 1979, the well was again reported as shut-in (Piotrowski & Harper, 1979). The Ashcroft #1 was assigned Permit #BEA-20060 (Heyman & Cozart, 1978), now API #37-007-20060 (Ryder, 2004; Ryder et al., 2012; Trippi & Crangle, 2009). See Figure 1.

Figure 1. Ashcroft #1 Gamma Ray Log 

ashcroftlog

Source: Trippi & Crangle, 2009

References

Heyman, L., & Cozart, C. L. 1978. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1977. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 191.

Piotrowski, R. G., & Harper, J. A. 1979. Black Shale and Sandstone Facies of the Devonian “Catskill” Clastic Wedge in the Subsurface of Western Pennsylvania. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

Ryder, R. T. 2004. Stratigraphic Framework and Depositional Sequences in the Lower Silurian Regional Oil and Gas Accumulation, Appalachian Basin: From Ashland County, Ohio, through Southwestern Pennsylvania, to Preston County, West Virginia. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Investigations Series, Map I-2810.

Ryder, R. T., Trippi, M. H., Swezey, C. S., Crangle, R. D., Jr., Hope, R. S., Rowan, E. L., et al. 2012. Geologic Cross Section C–C’ through the Appalachian Basin From Erie County, North-Central Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Bedford County, South-Central Pennsylvania. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Map 3172.

Trippi, M. H., & Crangle, R. D., Jr. 2009. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C’ through the Central Appalachian Basin. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Open File Report 2009-1021.

The Fleck #1

Another example of a spud unconventional gas well omitted from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection’s Act 13 report, this one in the West Falls Formation.

Fleck #1

In 1975, Peoples Natural Gas Company spud the James Fleck #1 in Sandy Creek Township, Mercer County, reaching a total depth of 9,246 feet in “Precambrian granite” (Lytle et al., 1977: 23). The well was plugged back and fractured in the Lower Silurian Medina Group from 4,990 to 5,040 feet, discovering the Fleck Pool in the Sheakleyville Field (Lytle et al., 1977). In 1977, the Pennsylvania Geological Survey reported two different completion dates for this well: August 27, 1975, and March 12, 1976, creating indeterminacy as to when these events took place (Lytle et al., 1977). Regardless, initial production was reportedly 231 Mcfgpd, and the well was assigned Permit #MER-20116 (Lytle et al., 1977), or API #37-085-20116 under current nomenclature (Baranoski, 2002). The well was then shut-in (Heyman & Cozart, 1978). According to later reports, “although a significant amount of gas was encountered, it was not deemed sufficient to justify the expense of putting the well on line” (Harper & Abel, 1979: 41).

Around this same time, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) had launched a five-year study of Devonian organic-rich shales in the Appalachian Basin (Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977).[1] As it relates to the James Fleck #1, in addition to production from the Medina Group, well logs indicated gas production in so-called Zone I facies, which were then thought to be “approximately equivalent to the Rhine Street Shale of New York” (Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977: 41). Seizing upon this potential, Peoples Natural Gas Company and the ERDA began negotiating the possibility of using the James Fleck #1 to test the West Falls Formation (Frohne, 1978; Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977).

These negotiations succeeded, and in March 1978, the newly formed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) “attempted to stimulate the Rhinestreet facies … by means of a massive hydraulic fracturing treatment” (Harper & Abel, 1979: 41). In preparation for the treatment, the Devonian Shale was perforated with 50 holes between 3,112 and 3,360 feet deep (Frohne, 1978). The planned hydraulic fracturing treatment called for 270,000 gallons of nitrogen-water foam fracturing fluid, 324,000 pounds of sand proppant, and 12 major pieces of fracturing equipment (Frohne, 1978). Additionally, 6 gallons of surfactant, 1 gallon of clay stabilizer, and 44 pounds of calcium chloride per thousand gallons of water were injected with the foam (Frohne, 1978). The job also included 2,000 pounds of flaked benzoic acid to be used as a temporary diverting agent to insure that the entire perforated interval accepted some fracturing fluid (Frohne, 1978). See Table 1 for complete specifications of the planned massive hydraulic fracture treatment.

Table 1. Fleck #1 Massive Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Schedule

fleckmhf

Source: Frohne, 1978

However, during the hydraulic fracturing treatment, unexpectedly high pressures were encountered, as well as a mechanical packer problem, resulting in a catastrophic downhole casing failure (Frohne, 1978). During the curtailed foam frac operation, 1,582,000 SCF of nitrogen gas, 18,500 gallons of water, and 19,700 pounds of sand had been pumped into the well, most of which then rapidly escaped from the fractured interval and returned to the surface. During the flowback, a substantial amount of sand proppant was sprayed over the backside of the well location. Trees about 30 to 50 yards away had coats of sand plastered on trunks and branches, and there was a solid layer of sand over the rear quadrant of the well site (see Figure 1). “This served to illustrate the potential hazards associated with any stimulation effort, as well as the need for good wellhead arrangement and spectator control” (Frohne, 1978: 5).

Figure 1. Fleck #1 Massive Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Schematic

fleckdiagram

Source: Frohne, 1978

Despite extensive remedial efforts, the treatment had to be aborted, and the well was plugged and abandoned (Frohne, 1978; Piotrowski, Cozart, Heyman, Harper, & Abel, 1979; Piotrowski & Harper, 1979). Following these events, the Pennsylvania Geological Survey published another completion record for this well, dated March 16, 1978 (Piotrowski et al., 1979).


[1] The ERDA was created on Oct 17, 1974 as part of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. On October 1, 1977, the ERDA was combined with the Federal Energy Administration to form the United States Department of Energy.

References

Baranoski, M. T. 2002. Structure Contour Map on the Precambrian Unconformity Surface in Ohio and Related Basement Features. Columbus, OH: Ohio Department of Natural Resources.

Frohne, K.-H. 1978. Technical Assessment: Massive Foam Stimulation Attempt in Mercer Co., Pa. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

Harper, J. A., & Abel, K. D. 1979. Devonian Shale Research in Pennsylvania: An Update. In R. G. Piotrowski, C. L. Cozart, L. Heyman, J. A. Harper, & K. D. Abel (Eds.), Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1978: 34–43. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 192.

Heyman, L., & Cozart, C. L. 1978. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1977. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 191.

Lytle, W. S., Heyman, L., Piotrowski, R. G., & Krajewski, S. A. 1977. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1976. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 190.

Piotrowski, R. G., Cozart, C. L., Heyman, L., Harper, J. A., & Abel, K. D. 1979. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1978. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 192.

Piotrowski, R. G., & Harper, J. A. 1979. Black Shale and Sandstone Facies of the Devonian “Catskill” Clastic Wedge in the Subsurface of Western Pennsylvania. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

Piotrowski, R. G., & Krajewski, S. A. 1977. Devonian Shale Research in Pennsylvania. In W. S. Lytle, L. Heyman, R. G. Piotrowski, & S. A. Krajewski (Eds.), Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1976: 33–42. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 190.

The Metropolitan Industry #1

Another example of a spud unconventional gas well omitted from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection’s Act 13 report, this one in the West Falls Formation.

Metropolitan Industry #1

In 1975, Quaker State Oil Refining Corporation completed the Metropolitan Industry #1 in Darlington Township, Beaver County, as a test of the Lower Silurian Medina Group (Harper & Abel, 1979; Lytle, Piotrowski, & Heyman, 1976; Piotrowski & Harper, 1979). The well was drilled to a total depth of 6,666 feet in the Queenston Shale (Lytle, Heyman, Piotrowski, & Krajewski, 1977; Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976). After no gas was encountered in the Medina, the well was plugged back to test the Upper Devonian shale (Harper & Abel, 1979; Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976). There was no natural production from the shale, but after hydraulic fracturing from just above the Onondaga limestone to above the Tully limestone the well initially produced 150 Mcfgepd (Harper & Abel, 1979; Lytle et al., 1977; Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976; Piotrowski & Harper, 1979).

At the time, the Pennsylvania Geological Survey claimed the well “could be a most significant discovery” (Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976: 25), and credited it with discovering the Darlington Field. This enthusiasm proved to be short lived, however, as production declined each day, and by the end of 30 days the well was non-productive (Lytle et al., 1977). “When shut-in, pressure would build up, but on opening up the well, it would blow off to nothing in a short time. Evidently, there was very little original fracture porosity. Gas accumulated mainly in fractures induced when the well was completed by hydraulic fracturing” (Lytle et al., 1977: 23). The well was eventually plugged and abandoned (Piotrowski & Harper, 1979).

Despite being completed on February 6, 1975, “the [well] record was not received until 1976” (Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976: 25–26). In 1977, some two years after it had been completed, the state published the well record (Lytle et al., 1977). The well was originally assigned Permit #BEA-20054 (Lytle et al., 1977). Under current nomenclature, the Metropolitan Industry #1 is known as API #37-007-20054 (Hosterman & Whitlow, 1983; Ryder et al., 2012).

Initially, the Metropolitan Industry #1 was described as having been completed in the Upper Devonian shale (Lytle, Piotrowski, et al., 1976). The following year the Pennsylvania Geological Survey reported the well produced from so-called Zone I facies, “the second major black shale unit in Pennsylvania” (see Figure 1), which was thought to be “approximately equivalent to the Rhine Street Shale of New York” (Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977: 41). By 1978, the Metropolitan Industry #1 was considered to produce from the “Rhinestreet shale facies” (Harper & Abel, 1979: 38). Finally, by 1979, it was shown that the well completed and produced from the West Falls, Sonyea, and Genesse Formations (see Figure 2) (Piotrowski & Harper, 1979).

Figure 1. Upper Devonian Cross Section Circa 1977

upperdevonian1977

Source: Piotrowski & Krajewski, 1977

Figure 2. Metropolitan Industry #1 Combined Well Logs

metro1logs

Source: Piotrowski & Harper, 1979

References

Harper, J. A., & Abel, K. D. 1979. Devonian Shale Research in Pennsylvania: An Update. In R. G. Piotrowski, C. L. Cozart, L. Heyman, J. A. Harper, & K. D. Abel (Eds.), Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1978: 34–43. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 192.

Hosterman, J. W., & Whitlow, S. I. 1983. Clay Mineralogy of Devonian Shales in the Appalachian Basin. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey.

Lytle, W. S., Heyman, L., Piotrowski, R. G., & Krajewski, S. A. 1977. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1976. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 190.

Lytle, W. S., Piotrowski, R. G., & Heyman, L. 1976. Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1975. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 189.

Piotrowski, R. G., & Harper, J. A. 1979. Black Shale and Sandstone Facies of the Devonian “Catskill” Clastic Wedge in the Subsurface of Western Pennsylvania. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

Piotrowski, R. G., & Krajewski, S. A. 1977. Devonian Shale Research in Pennsylvania. In W. S. Lytle, L. Heyman, R. G. Piotrowski, & S. A. Krajewski (Eds.), Oil and Gas Developments in Pennsylvania in 1976: 33–42. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Progress Report 190.

Ryder, R. T., Trippi, M. H., Swezey, C. S., Crangle, R. D., Jr., Hope, R. S., Rowan, E. L., et al. 2012. Geologic Cross Section C–C’ through the Appalachian Basin From Erie County, North-Central Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Bedford County, South-Central Pennsylvania. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Map 3172.

More Early Unconventional Wells

This post continues my series on unconventional wells that have been omitted from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection’s Act 13 reporting, with a look back at some wells from 1979-1981.

Commenting on this period, Patchen et al. (1982: 1958) write: “The Devonion shales of Pennsylvania, which have produced gas (normally in uncommercial quantities) since 1860, were the target of several successful drilling attempts in 1981.” These drilling attempts resulted in “three new pools discovered in the deeper shale zones, including the Upper Devonian West Falls, Sonyea, and Genessee formations, and the Middle Devonian Marcellus Formation.”

According to the Pennsylvania Geological Survey’s Subsurface Rock Correlation Diagram (Carter, 2007), the West Falls Formation includes the Rhinestreet Shale; the Sonyea Formation includes the Middlesex Shale; the Genessee Formation includes both the Geneseo Shale and the Burket Shale; and of course, the Marcellus Formation includes the Marcellus Shale. All five of these shales are stratigraphically below the Elk Sandstone, and thus, any wells drilled into these formations are subject to unconventional gas well fees under Act 13, CHAPTER 23 § 2302.

One of these wells was the Combustion Engineering Fee #1 well (Permit #003-20980), drilled in Allegheny County on March 25, 1979, and completed that year in the Marcellus and Genesse formations. According the Pennsylvania Department of Environment Protection’s Oil and Gas Reporting website, this well was still producing gas 365 days a year in 2005, 2007 and 2008. But contrary to Patchen et al.’s (1982) report, the well is reported as “N” in the Marcellus Well field.

UPDATE: On February 4, 2015, I received the following email about the Combustion Engineering Fee #1 well.

Joel – Per this article you wrote I was the PM on the job working for Combustion Engineering at the time, and I somehow found this article. The well was fully DOE funded, the only Marcellus we did on it was to do one fracture, at 7,509 feet, that number sticks with me, take a sample to Mellon Institute for testing, and we then re-fractured at the higher sands in order to get enough gas out to heat the facility. The shale was way too tight for 1979 technology! Just thought you may want to know since your article notes there is really no record of Marcellus Production.
Thanks – Bob Necciai

Another two wells were drilled in Clarion County: the Conner #1 well (Permit #031-2076) and the Minich #2 (Permit #031-20864). Both wells were drilled by Gearhart and Odell and completed in the West Falls, Sonyea and Genessee formations (meaning the Rhinestreet, Middlesex, Geneseo and Burket shales). According to the Pennsylvania Department of Environment Protection Oil and Gas Reporting website, the Conner #1 produced gas in 2002, 2004 and 2005. However, these wells were not reported to the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission by the Department as required by Act 13. I’ve added all three wells to the spreadsheet of missing Act 13 unconventional wells.

Finally, Patchen et al. (1982: 1980) report on three failed exploratory wells drilled to the Helderberg Group and another drilled to the Hamilton Group. Very possibly, these four wells are also liable for Act 13 unconventional gas well fees. The Hamilton Group includes the Marcellus Shale and the Helderberg Group includes the Mandata Shale. These wells included Permits MCK-39885, SOM-20103, TIO-20104 and WES-21705.